Wiktionnaire:Actualités/019-October-2016

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Wiktionnaire:Actualités is a small monthly periodical about French Wiktionary and words, created in April 2015. Everyone is welcome to contribute to it. You can sign up to be noticed of future issues, read old issues and participate to the draft of the next edition. You can also have a look at Regards sur l’actualité de la Wikimedia. If you have any comments, critics or suggestions, our talk page is open!

Actualités - numéro 19 - octobre 2016

Highlights

  • Xavier de La Porte wrote a nice declaration of love to Wikipedia about a page from English version chronologically listing extinct languages. He indicates especially that the Internet is a dreamt place to preserve memory of these languages and to allow to read them and even to listen to them. A position that recalls an ongoing project of recording regional languages of France supported by Wikimedia France!

Detail of a picture proposed by DeFacto during the monthly Photo challenge of October.

News of contributors

The Tremendous Wiktionary User Group (TWUG) has been officially approved by Wikimedia Foundation on October, 19th. This happy group, open to all, will allow a better promotion of Wiktionary within ecosystem of online collaborative projects, possible obtainment of grants, organization of gathering events of people contributing or supporting this project.

To celebrate the 3 million pages created on the French Wiktionary, it was suggested to organize a gathering in Paris.

Monthly permanences of Wiktionnaire continue each first Thursday of each month, in Lyon, France ! An event on Facebook has even been created to make sure not to forget! If you come in this region, do not hesitate to come!

On October 29th, board of trustees of French association for promoting of projects, Wikimédia France, a chapter of Wikimedia Foundation, has been partly renewed by its 303 members. One of the Actualités writer, conference speaker about Wiktionary and local contact of Lyon's group was candidate in order to defend Wiktionary point of view, but he has not been elected. However, this candidature has highlighted the growing importance of "small projects" that are too often in the shadow of Wikipedia, and even ignored by most of people.

Statistics

 
A cloudberry, atsalugpiaq in Central Alaskan Yup'ik language.

From mid-September to mid-October (from September 20 to October 20) (Two updates have been merged)

  • 9,687 entries have been added to French. Now, there are 333,625 lemmas and 489,833 definitions.

The three other languages that have had the most entries added are Northern Sami (+ 8,603 entries), Italian (+ 1,210 entries) and Czech (+ 462 entries).

Note that in the following paragraph, language names are approximated translations from French; if you wish to correct translations of any of these names, you are welcome to edit this page. New languages within the project are: Binumarien (+1), Burgundian (+1) and Weri (+1).

21,222 pages were added in October, in at least 76 languages!

New language codes in French Wiktionary are: nyangatom (code: kmw) and proto-turc (code: proto-turc).

Miscellaneous
  • There are 29,637 illustration media (pictures and videos) in the Wiktionnaire articles, meaning 2,965 more than last month. But in fact no, we just additionally took into account the [[fichier: link this time. In reality it is 103 (which is still awesome!).
  • The Wiktionnaire crossed the 3 million pages threshold on October, 10th 2016. The 3,000,000th page is atsalugpiaq, a central yupik word meaning cloudberry, which definition was on Wiktionnaire home page for several months.
  • Akeron added the support to other Wikimedia projects, in which Wiktionnaire, by Wikiscan. It is a very complete tool that provides with various statistics on the Wiktionnaire, its articles and contributors.

Dictionary of the month

Agnès Bouët, Stanislas Crouzier, Jacques Montégut, Jean Marmarot, Dénominations régionales et locales des herbes des champs, Éditions ACTA, 149 rue de Bercy, Paris, 1981 ISBN 2-85794-013-0

The document Dénominations régionales et locales des herbes des champs is quite a strange thing. It is not strictly a dictionary but a lexicon (or a glossary); it was written by agronomists, for agronomists. At the beginning of the adventure of its redaction, a request from Stanislas Crouzier, president of the Fédération nationale des agriculteurs multiplicateurs de semences (known under the name of F.N.A.M.S.) that gathers a group with Jacques Montégut, professor at the École nationale supérieure d’horticulture (E.N.S.H.) of Versailles, pope of weed science in France and Jean Marmarot, scientific publisher at the Association de Coordination Technique Agricole (A.C.T.A.). The scientific coordination was given to Agnès Bouët, agronomist engineer.

With the modernization of french agriculture and the use of new techniques promoted by technicians and engineers from every part of France, we came across the finding drafted by S. Crouzier:

  When a famer contacts someone who is qualified to guide him in the fight against weed, he often calls each of them by a local name [...] very often unknown of his interlocutor.

A protocol of investigation on the field was implemented to gather as many local names as possible, attached to the corresponding botanic name. A list of 103 species (amongst about 3500 vascular vegetals counted in the France flora) of the most frequent or most nocive ones was created.

The investigation was launched during summer 1980 with 367 agricultural organisms and education institutions; 201 answers were collected by the end of 1980, which enabled to cover all of the metropolitan French territory.

The edition was published in december 1981 (especially for the respondents) and, in march 1982, a reissue was (freely) broadcasted by a phytosanitary products company.

This document gives an alphabetic list of names with their correspondences and their location: from local name to french name (for example: Baumlerkraut - mercuriale annuelle . Alsace) or from french name to local name (for example: carotte sauvage - Daucus carotta followed by a list of 55 local names and information on the department or region where the word is used: carottasse (12); carotta (2AB); bambarène (Auv), etc.), to which is added the flemish name(s) and vernacular name given by the flora of Gaston Bonnier.

To close this lexicon, 21 maps: 3 indicating the distribution of the french names for 3 local names: herbe-à-cochon (that names 8 distinct species), patte d'oie (8 species) and traînasse (12 species), and 18 maps of the distribution of the local names of 18 botanic species.

For 103 species studied, the document is 117 pages long in A4 format, which gives an idea of the information density.

In 2016, it is difficult to obtain this document; the publisher seems to no longer offer it and it is archived in only a few public libraries; it can be found in some agricultural teaching institutions' libraries or in agriculture houses libraries. — François GOGLINS

Third Lexisession about the police

Driven by the Tremendous Wiktionary User Group, the LexiSessions aim to suggest monthly themes for focused contributions on all Wiktionaries simultaneously. The third LexiSession was about the police and has led to the creation of the thesaurus about police in French !

While demonstrations of policemen occurred in the France news, the following words have been created: grenade de désencerclement, OIPC, contrôle social, contrôle au faciès and menottes (existed only as a plural flexions); the following words has been reviewed and improved: filature, flashball, indic, interrogatoire, hôtel de police, maître-chien, scène de crime and taser.

Participation on other Wiktionaries and qualitative improvement of the French Wiktionary are difficult to measure.

The November LexiSession will focus on wine!

Videos

This chronicle is an inventory of online videos about linguistics and the French language, in French.

The english channel "what the fuck France" posted this month an episode in which the presenter explains why after years living in France and a diploma in the study of french language, he stills speaks french badly: What The Fuck France - La Langue Française.

Detail of a picture proposed by Philippe Alès (Palamède) during the monthly Photo challenge of October.

Last month's top words

Stats provide with the information of the words that have been modified by the most people in the past months. Here are the most modified words for September 2016! In superscript are the number of different editors:

  1. ballet diplomatique5 (suggested by Hégésippe in the questions about words then created by Ars’ who also mentionned it in the Wikidémie.)
  2. valédiction5 (suggested by an unknown guest in the questions about words)
  3. monarchie de droit divin5
  4. gélatinographie5 (same add cancelled several times because it gave information that should rather be on Wikipedia)
  5. maïeutique5 (because on the home page)
  6. pute5 (page vandalized a lot)
  7. avoir les yeux en trou de bite4 (created by an anonym, almost deleted but saved)
  8. bosnioule4
  9. Ogooué-Maritime4
  10. Thésaurus sur les voies urbaines4 (upgraded during the second LexiSession)

Fun facts

When we discuss the relative difficulty of a language compared to French, a very subjective notion, we often think of phonetics, for example of the pronunciation in tonal languages such as Chinese or Vietnamese; of the grammar, like the Basque one or the Georgian one that are of great complexity; of the writing lie the Arabic one, the Burmese one or those using ideograms; of lexicon, for example Thai or Japanese for which there are several levels of language, meaning a different vocabulary depending on who you are talking to, but we rarely recall morphosyntax.

Morphosyntax is the assembly of morphemes, units of meaning, participating in the expression of grammatical functions. Suffixes in French verbs conjugation are part of the language morphosyntax.

In the case of some languages, for example languages strongly polysynthetic, pronunciation, grammar, writing and lexicon can be quite easily acquired, while morphosyntax proves to be dreadful. Words in these languages are often shaped of a base to which are added many affixes (prefix and suffix) until constituting what we call a clause or even a whole sentence. The problem is to know what base to choose to express a clause.

A group of Inuits in an umiak in spring, 1920-1929, Robert J. Flaherty.

Here is an example in inuktitut, inuit language, to illustrate the morphosyntaxic complexity:

Pinnginnguaqtummariaalugaluaqputit sunauvva tigliktaviniit.
Although you really dare pretending not having done it, what a surprise for me, that you stole it without me realizing it.

Even if you know all of the bases and suffixes, master all the phonotactical rules (of transformation of sounds linked to the morphemes assembly) and grammar, it is very difficult to know where to start the translation from the french sentence to inuktitut.

Should we start by "pretend", "do", "really", "steal", etc. ?

Let's decompose Pinnginnguaqtummariaalugaluaqputit sunauvva tigliktaviniit.

Pinnginnguaqtummariaalugaluaqputit :
pinngit-, « not to do » (lexicalized, resulting itself from pi-, « do », pi, « thing » with -nngit-, « not to »)
-nnguaq-, « simulate, pretend although it is false »
-tu-, « deeply, fundamentally »
-mmarik-, « really »
'-aaluk-’, variant of -aluk-, « exaggeratedly »
-galuaq-, « actually »
-putit, a person suffix indexing a subject and an object, « you...it »
sunauvva :

« what a surprise, I would not have believed it, gosh, how surprising »

tigliktaviniit :
tillik-, « steal »
ta…it, gerund person circonfix encoding both subject and object « you...that did it »
-viniq-, indicates that the action took place in the past without me realizing it at the time, « against my will »

Every language show different complexity but it is very delicate to prioritize them on the criteria of complexity, as it can be on different levels and can be more or less difficult to master, depending on the native language of the learners. — Unsui & Noé